By Boyka Stefanova
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Additional info for The Europeanisation of Conflict Resolutions: Regional Integration and Conflicts from the 1950s to the 21st Century
2008a), Bourne (2004), Coppieters et al. (2004), and Schimmelfennig et al. (2006) have argued that the relationship between integration and peace is not necessarily a positive one and that European integration creates unintended consequences.
Outcomes vary between inertia or the lack of change, absorption and accommodation measuring the degree of adaptational change, transformation or paradigmatic change, and retrenchment as a direct opposition to change (Radaelli 2003). Variation in outcomes does not permit the establishment of a trend, as a result of which Europeanisation is associated more often with clustered effects (Goetz 2006), segmented outcomes (Sifft et al. 2007), increased interdependence, and the emergence of winners and losers (Radaelli and Pasquier 2007).
Because of the actor-centred nature of European integration, we need to demonstrate that at least one variable in the model of outcome creation is exogenous. Furthermore, integration is not isolated from broader influences. As an embedded process, it may act either as an independent or an intervening variable. Establishing its net effect is not a straightforward task also due to the need to control for competing explanations (Goetz 2000: 19; Haverland 2005). In order to establish the theoretical necessity of causation, the core of the Europeanisation research agenda consists of identifying the sources of integration influences while taking into account that integration is not a single-stream event.