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By Richard A Stripp

Goals to introduce scholars to uncomplicated rules of forensic toxicology and the position of toxins in forensic technological know-how. This publication emphasises at the universal medicinal drugs and poisons which are encountered through a working towards forensic toxicologist and the method of picking out their medicolegal position in setting up the reason for loss of life and illness.

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Carboxyhemoglobin saturation levels greater than 50% are usually fatal. Deaths have also occurred at lower levels in individuals who have preexisting health problems, such as heart disease, or who have other drugs present in them, such as alcohol. There is evidence that CO can inhibit cellular respiration, which contributes to its toxic or lethal effect. Most fire-related deaths are associated with abnormal carboxyhemoglobin levels. Lower levels would indicate that the person did not spend an extended period in the fire environment while they were alive; high levels indicate that the person survived for a more prolonged time.

1 In this photograph taken in Peru, native dark-colored elemental arsenic is embedded in light-colored quartz crystals. Arsenic was commonly used in many murders until the arrival of the Marsh test, which detects the presence of this deadly poison. Although arsenic is one of the oldest poisons used by humans, poisoning is less common today than in the past. However, they do still occur and sufficient doses of inorganic arsenic can result in death. Sublethal doses cause irritation of the stomach and intestines (stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea), anemia, arrhythmias (abnormal heart rhythm), sore throat and irritated lungs (if inhaled), impaired peripheral nerve function, and darkening of the skin, particularly on the palms and soles.

Once it is consumed, the majority (greater than 90%) of the arsenic is absorbed into the bloodstream, where it is then transported to the targets of its toxicity. The mechanism by which arsenic produces its effect is by combining chemically with sulfhydryl groups on proteins, such as enzymes, and thereby inactivating them. 1 In this photograph taken in Peru, native dark-colored elemental arsenic is embedded in light-colored quartz crystals. Arsenic was commonly used in many murders until the arrival of the Marsh test, which detects the presence of this deadly poison.

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