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By Linda Hajjar Leib

This booklet explores the philosophical, theoretical and felony bases that underpin the linkage among human rights and the surroundings. Such linkage, grounded in fact, is an leading edge method of addressing environmental matters during the lens of a well-established overseas human rights procedure. The ebook argues new set of environmental rights is steadily forging its approach into overseas legislation and indicates a re-configuration of the human rights method within the context of sustainable improvement and the concept of harmony rights. In doing so, units of innovations are thought of: first, the potential for a rapprochement among environmental ethics and the human rights doctrine and, moment, the theoretical and functional hyperlinks one of the innovations of improvement, democracy, surroundings and sustainable improvement.

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Extreme Poverty and Affluence Both extreme poverty and wealth have a detrimental impact on the well-being of the environment. People living in poor countries tend to rely directly on their natural surroundings to satisfy their basic needs, such as water and food. Consequently, environmental degradation infringes on people’s basic rights to life and health, creating more poverty and despair. A vicious circle forms when poverty is at the same time both the result and the cause of environmental degradation.

It brought together 172 countries with the participation of more than 100 heads of State or government. Apart from governmental representation, the Rio Summit was also host to 2400 nongovernmental organisations (NGOs). 182 Two international instruments on the environment and development were fashioned at this Summit: the Rio Declaration and Agenda 21. The Rio Declaration is a brief statement of 27 principles or objectives designed to be a source of inspiration and guidance for domestic legislators and policy-makers in issues relating to the environment and sustainability.

144 32 chapter one In a similar vein, the Gaia hypothesis put forward by James Lovelock (1919) perceives the planet Earth as a ‘super organism’ worthy of respect and protection. The Gaia hypothesis originated as a scientific theory but its impact has radiated beyond science. 149 The Gaia hypothesis claims that the Earth can regulate and renew itself and survive the destructive activities inflicted on its biophysical systems. 150 d. Deep Ecology and Transpersonal Ecology ‘Deep ecology’ and ‘ecocentrism’ are used interchangeably in referring to the philosophy concerned with granting intrinsic values to nature, but these concepts differ slightly.

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